Glossary of Carpet Terms

Abrasive Wear

The wearing away of the pile surface of a carpet by friction created by walking or rolling traffic. This refers to actual fiber loss, as opposed to matting or crushing which occur with normal use.

Antistatic

A carpet’s ability to dissipate an electrostatic charge before it reaches the level of human sensitivity.

Attached Cushion

In high-traffic, commercial installations, attaching an underlayment (foam, rubber, urethane, etc.) to the back of the carpet provides additional dimensional stability.

Backing

The fabric and yarns that make up the side of the carpet that lays next to the floor. In tufted carpets there are two types of backing:

  • Primary Backing
    A woven or non-woven fabric through which the yarn is inserted by the tufting needles.

  • Secondary Backing
    Fabric that is laminated to the back of the carpet to reinforce it.

Barber Pole

By twisting two yarns together, each of a different color, a “barber pole” or “candy cane” look can be achieved, giving the finished carpet an overall heathered appearance.

BCF

Bulked continuous filament. Continuous strands of synthetic fiber formed into yarn bundles of a given number of filaments and texturized to increase bulk.  Straight filaments can be texturized into kinked or curled filaments for added volume.

Beam

Large horizontal cylinders or spools. Warp yarns are wound on beams, as opposed to creels, used during tufting operations.

Beck

A vessel for dyeing carpet in rope form (with the ends sewn together), consisting primarily of a large tank and a cylindrical reel that advances or rotates the carpet during the dyeing process.

Berber

A loop-pile carpet that offers great durability, a full comfortable texture and a casual, informal look. Often, these carpets incorporate flecks of color that contrast with the primary hue. In addition to loop products, the term “berber” has expanded to include many cut pile products.

Binding

A special stitch, band or strip sewn over a carpet edge to protect, strengthen or decorate the edge.

Broadloom

A term used to denote carpet produced in widths wider than 54 inches. Broadloom is usually 12 feet wide, but is also manufactured in 13’6 and 15’ widths.

Buckling

A carpet that does not lay flat on the floor and has ridges. In properly installed carpeting, buckling or rippling should rarely occur. A power-stretcher (not a knee-kicker) should be used to correct the situation when this issue does arise.  Visit www.carpet-rug.org for more specific information.

Burns

Any burns should be taken care of immediately. First, snip off the damaged fibers, then use a soapless cleaner and sponge with water. If the damage is extensive, see a professional about repairs.

Cable

Carpet with a casual cut pile construction featuring chunky tufts and long pile height.

Carding

In staple yarn processing, this method is used to remove impurities and short, unusable fibers. The fiber is cleaned and aligned to form a continuous untwisted string called a “sliver”.

Carpet Odor

Some new carpets and padding may have a noticeable odor. Such odors usually disappear within a few days with ventilation and frequent vacuuming.  All Royalty carpet styles meet or exceed the certification guidelines for the Carpet & Rug Institute's Green Label Plus program to insure low VOC emissions.

Cationic Fiber

Nylon polymer that has been modified chemically to make the fiber receptive to cationic (basic) dye. Cationic dyeable yarns are used in conjunction with acid dyeable yarns to create multicolor graphic patterns in piece dyeing.

Continuous Dyeing

The process of dyeing carpet on a production line, rather than piece dyeing separate lots. Most often done on continuous dyeing equipment which injects dyestuffs onto the carpet, as distinguished from submerging carpet in separate dye becks. Allows for larger dyelots and greater manufacturing efficiency.

Continuous Filament

Continuous strand of synthetic fiber extruded in yarn form, without the need for spinning. This results in a cleaner finished appearance than staple fibers.

Creel

The large frame used to hold yarn cones that directly feeds yarn to the needles of a tufting machine.

Crushing

Furniture and traffic may crush a carpet’s pile. Frequent vacuuming in high traffic areas and glides under heavy furniture can help the problem. Rotating the furniture to change traffic patterns can also help minimize changes in appearance. A light steam iron on lowest steam setting may help to remove dents from furniture.

Cushion

The material placed under a carpet for softness and support. It helps reduce noise, increase insulation benefits, and contributes to a softer feel underfoot. Purchasing an incorrect type of cushion may invalidate your warranty. Also known as padding or underlayment.

Cut Pile

A carpet in which the yarn loops are cut to create a textured look and feel.

Cut and Loop Pile

A carpet fabric in which the face is composed of a combination of cut ends of pile yarns and loops.

Delamination

The separation of the secondary backing or attached cushion from the primary backing of the carpet.

Denier

A yarn count unit. Denier is a direct numbering system; the higher the denier, the larger the yarn.

Density

This describes the amount of fiber or yarn in a carpet and how close the tufts of fiber are to each other. In general, the denser the pile, the better the performance.

Dyelot

This is the amount of a particular carpet that can be dyed together in one lot (or made from yarn that was dyed together), to insure that each yard is the same color.

Dyelot Variation

The amount that a color can vary and still be considered a “match” without physically being in the same dyelot.

Face Weight

Refers to the amount of fiber (per square yard) that is in the face of the carpet (total weight less the weight of the latex and backing). However this is different than density because tall, less dense tufts may have the same face weight as short, dense tufts. On average, short dense tufts will be more resistant to wear and matting.

Fading

All carpet (like any textile product) is subject to color changes over time. This change is very gradual and is caused by oxidation through exposure to the open air within the home. Due to damaging ultra-violet rays, areas exposed to sunlight are subject to more dramatic color changes.

Filament

A single, continuous strand of natural or synthetic fiber.

Finishing

A collective term denoting final processing of carpet subsequent to tufting and dyeing. Carpet finishing processes include shearing, brushing, application of secondary backing and application of soil retardant and antistatic chemicals.

Formaldehyde

Carpet does not contain formaldehyde. While no formaldehyde is used in the manufacture of carpet, formaldehyde occurs naturally in the environment. Carpet, as well as any other textile, can absorb airborne formaldehyde.

Frieze

Tightly curled or twisted yarn that gives carpet a textured appearance good for hiding footprints. Pronounced frih-zay’.

Fuzzing

Occurs when fibers from the carpet slip out of the yarn bundle with use or sometimes after wet cleaning.

Gauge

The distance between two needle points in tufted carpet. It is usually expressed in fractions of an inch.

Greige

Undyed, unfinished carpet.

Hand

How a product feels – a product with a good “hand” feels soft and luxurious.

Heat Setting

A process that sets the twist in a carpet pile with heat or steam. This process allows fibers to hold their twist over time, allowing them to bounce back with great resilience whenever they are stepped on.

Heather

A multicolor effect created by blending fibers of different colors prior to spinning carpet yarn.

Hot Water Extraction

Also known as steam cleaning, this is a restorative method of carpet cleaning that injects hot water (often combined with detergent) into the carpet, then extracts both the water and the soil.  Royalty's warranties require that carpets be professionally cleaned using the hot water extraction method every 12-18 months.

Knee Kicker

A carpet installation tool used to make minor adjustments by stretching carpet (for installation with a tackless strip). By industry standards, the majority of this stretch must be performed using a power stretcher.  Visit www.carpet-rug.org for more specific information.

Latex

A water-based sythesis of synthetic rubber, natural rubber or other polymers. Latex is used to adhere secondary backing to primary backing in the carpet manufacture.

Level Loop

The fiber in the carpet is stitched in uncut loops of the same size. It creates a smooth, level surface.

Loop Pile

The fiber in the carpet is looped and uncut. Can be either level loop or multi-level loop.

Luster

Brightness, sheen or reflectivity of fibers, yarns or carpet. Synthetic fibers are produced in various luster classifications including bright, semibright, semidull and dull. Luster of finished carept also depends upon yarn heat-setting methods, dyeing and finishing. In high-traffic commercial areas, duller carpet is often preferred for soil-hiding abilities.

Nap

Another term for pile, usually used when discussing the pile direction, or the direction that the carpet came off the tufting machine.

Nylon

A synthetic fiber first discovered by DuPont chemists in 1938, but not used in carpet until much later. Today it is the most often used fiber for carpet and can come in either filament or staple form. Features include cleanability, dyeability, stain and soil resistance, resistance to abrasion, ability to recover resiliency, moth proof, mildew proof, non-allergenic and color retention.

Pattern Match

The measurement of repeating units (measured in width and length) within the design of a particular carpet style. When considering the purchase of patterned carpet, it is essential that your installer know the size of the pattern match as it could greatly affect the amount of carpet you will require.

Peaking

A seam that is peaking is one that is generally higher than the other areas of the carpet. Most often this is due to improper carpet installation. It is also caused by the carpet installer running the padding seams in the same direction as the carpet seams (normally, this should not be done).

Pile

The visible surface of a carpet, consisting of yarn or fiber tufts in loops that can be either cut or uncut. Also known as the “face” or “nap” of a carpet.

Pile Crushing (carpet in use)

Pile crush will occur to some degree - it is, in fact, unavoidable. It will be most noticeable in high traffic lanes and under the legs of heavy pieces of furniture. More frequent vacuuming will help minimize this condition in heavy traffic areas. Moving your furniture occasionally and using cups under the legs of furniture will also help minimize pile crushing.

Pile Crushing (carpet in transit)

This is a term used for the specific type of crush that can normally occur during the shipment and storage of rolled carpet. It can be especially apparent in a “velvet plush”, but can appear in any carpet style. Today’s soft yarns are particularly susceptible to pile crush. This condition is not permanent, and usually corrects itself as the carpet “conditions” to the environment. The carpet purchaser can speed this process along with additional vacuuming. Only in the most extreme cases will steaming the carpet be required to cure this condition.

Pile Height

A measurement (usually in fractions of an inch) of the pile of a carpet, from the base of the primary backing to the tip of the yarn.

Pill Test

A federal standard for the measurement of the flammability carpet or backing. Passing or failing this test is measured as a function of the size of the burn resulting from a timed Methenamine burning tablet.

Pilling

A condition, often caused by heavy use, in which fibers from different tufts of carpet become entangled in one another forming hard fiber masses or “pills”. These pills can be cut off with scissors.

Plied Yarn

A yarn composed of two or more single yarns twisted together. Many two-ply yarns are used in carpet. In cut pile carpet, plied yarns must be heat-set to prevent untwisting under traffic.

Plush

A cut pile carpet in which the individual carpet fibers appear to be cut the same length. The carpet offers a smooth, luxurious surface.

Power Stretcher

A carpet installation tool used to stretch carpet (for installation with a tackless strip). According to industry standards, residential carpet installed over cushion with a tackless strip must be power-stretched to prevent wrinkles and ripples.

Random Shearing

A carpet texture created by running loop pile carpet through the carpet shearer whereby high loops are actually cut to become cut pile. Since cut pile is less reflective than loop pile, the resulting texture can actually appear to be different colors.

Resilience

The ability of carpet pile or cushion to recover its original appearance and thickness after continued use.

Re-stretch

Repeating the stretching-in procedure, subsequent to the initial installation. This can be required if improperly installed, if the carpet is too easily stretched, or if there has been too much moisture introduced into the carpet.

Saxony

The carpet fiber loops are cut and twisted to create a relatively dense, consistent look. Saxony carpet presents a smooth, luxurious surface and is generally for formal settings.

Seams

The line formed by joining two pieces of carpet. The pieces can be sewn together, or fastened with various seaming tapes or other adhesives.

Seam Sealing

A procedure involving coating the trimmed edges of two carpet pieces of carpet to be seamed with a continuous bead of adhesive in order to prevent fraying and raveling at the seam. CRI installation standards require the use of seam sealer for residential carpet installations.

Selvage

The untrimmed side edges of a roll of carpet.

Shading

After installation, carpet often appears to change color in certain areas. This phenomenon does not involve a true color change, but rather a difference in light reflection between various surface areas. Shading is not a manufacturer’s defect, and is actually considered to be the beauty of a cut pile carpet, simulating the look of velvet or suede.

Normally, this condition is temporary (such as with footprints or vacuum marks). In rare cases, the condition is permanent. The latter is referred to as pooling or water-marking. The reason for this condition is unknown except that it is traffic related and random in nature. The pile fibers take on a permanent set based on the traffic patterns, and this set cannot be changed.

Shag

A carpet texture characterized by long pile tufts laid over in random directions in such a manner that the sides of the yarn form the traffic surface. Modern shags are made from plied, heat-set yarns and are either cut pile or cut and loop styles.

Shedding

Shedding is not a defect, but rather a characteristic of all new carpet manufactured with staple yarn. It is caused by short fibers within the pile that work loose during service. Shedding will gradually decrease. The length of time required to eliminate shedding is dependent upon the type and amount of vacuuming performed.

Snags

Sharp edged objects can grab or snag a carpet yarn (exposed nails in ladies’ high-heels are a very common offender). If your carpet is snagged, simply cut off the snagged yarn with a pair of sharp scissors. Do not try to pull out these snags, as they are most likely attached to other yarns in the carpet itself, which can then be loosened as well. If the snag is especially large, contact a carpet professional for service.

Sidematch

The level of match of the color and texture of a carpet from one side of its width to the other. Poor sidematching can result in visible seams.  This condition is easily corrected by a process known as color blending.

Soiling

A build-up of soil particles and similar materials that cling to carpet fibers. Thorough and frequent vacuuming is the key. If vacuuming is not enough, it’s time for a professional cleaning.

Soil Retardant

A chemical finish applied to carpet fibers or surfaces that inhibits the attachment of soil.

Solution Dyed

Yarn that is dyed in conjunction with being extruded, as opposed to yarn dyed (dyed after it has been converted to yarn), or beck or continuous dyeing, both of which are means of dyeing carpet after it has been tufted.

Space Dyed

Yarn where each individual yarn is dyed two or more colors that alternate along the length.

Sprouting

Occasionally, you may find small tufts of fiber sprouting above the carpet surface. Simply clip with sharp scissors. Don’t try to pull them out since you may also pull out other fibers in the process.

Stains

Stains are spills of normal household substances that have either not been tended to in time, or are of a material that somehow “over-dyes” the carpet. High quality carpet is dyed using a specific combination of water pH, temperature and the presence of “dye stuffs”. Some household products (such as coffee and mustard) can actually work very effectively as a carpet dye.

In all cases, spills and stains must be tended to immediately. Their severity is affected by the type of carpet fiber, color of carpet, how long the stain has set and the cause of the stain.

Stain Reisistant

A chemical finish applied to the carpet fiber and/or surface that inhibits the propensity for stains to attach to the carpet.

Staple

Short lengths of fiber that may be converted into spun yarns by textile yarn spinning processes. The fibers are usually 6” to 8” in length and are then transformed into yarn during the yarn manufacturing process.

Stitches

The number of yarn tufts per running inch of a single row in a tufted carpet.

Stuffer Box

In yarn manufacture, a device into which individual fibers are forced in mass in order to crimp or add volume to the fibers.

Tip Sheared

A carpet texture created just like random shearing, but is typically less pronounced.

Total Weight

The weight of a finished carpet (per square yard), including pile, primary backing, secondary backing and latex.

Tuft

An individual yarn (either cut or one-half of a loop) resulting from a single penetration of the primary backing by a threaded needle.

Tuft Bind

The force required to pull a tuft from the carpet backing.

Twist

A yarn manufacturing process, whereby the fiber bundles are brought together and wound around each other (twisted and then heat-set) to help the yarn bundle stay together and to improve performance by increasing its resistance to pile crush.

Yarn Encapsulation

The degree to which the yarn on the back of the primary backing is surrounded by and infused with latex before the secondary backing is applied.

Yarn Ply

The number of single fibers twisted together to form a plied yarn.